Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Black pepper is produced from the still-green, unripe drupes of the pepper plant.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savory foods. Cinnamon is cultivated by growing the tree for two years, then coppicing it, i.e., cutting the stems at ground level.
Nutmeg is also known as pala in Indonesia. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas or Spice Islands of Indonesia.
Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. It is mostly grown in Java and Sumatra, hence sometimes called Java pepper. The fruits are gathered before they are ripe, and carefully dried.
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple. The cashew seed, often simply called a cashew, is widely consumed. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter.